面包屑

Jacinda Ardern addressing the UN General Assembly in September 2022. 盖蒂图片社  

自从杰辛达·阿德恩将世界局势描述为“血腥的混乱” earlier this year there have been few, if any, signs of improvement. 乌克兰, 中国, nuclear proliferation 而且 the lasting impacts of a global p而且emic all present urgent, 未解决的挑战.

For a small country in an increasingly lawless world this is both dangerous 而且 confronting. Without the military or economic scale to influence events directly, 新西兰依靠自己的声音和说服能力.

But by placing its faith in a rules-based order 而且 United Nations processes, New Zeal而且 also has to work with – 而且 sometimes around – highly imperfect systems. In some areas of international law 而且 policy the machinery is failing. 目前还不清楚下一步可能是什么.

考虑到这些不确定性, 然后, 新西兰在国际舞台上哪些方面做得好, 而且 where might it need to find a louder voice or more constructive proposals?

面对俄罗斯

Strength 而且 clarity have been most evident in New Zeal而且’s response to the Russian attack on 乌克兰. 目前还没有加入的迹象 戒酒者 or 摇摆不定的 在关键的联合国投票中谴责俄罗斯的行为.

虽然可以说新西兰可以在…方面做得更多 制裁 而且 支持 for the Ukrainian military, the government has made good use of the available international forums.

加入 国际法院的案子 against “Russia’s spurious attempt to justify its invasion under international law” 而且 支持国际刑事法院 investigation into possible war crimes in 乌克兰 are both excellent initiatives.

不幸的是, similar avenues have been blocked when it comes to other critical issues New Zeal而且 has a vested interest in seeing resolved properly.

中国与人权

This has been especially apparent in the debate about human rights abuses in 中国, 而且 allegations of genocide made by some countries over the treatment of Uyghur Muslims in Xinjiang.

新西兰和其他一些国家 避免 使用"种族灭绝"这个词,这有 精确的法律含义 最好由联合国专家,而不是国内政客来运用. 而不是, the government called on 中国 to provide meaningful 而且 unfettered access to UN 而且 other independent observers.

虽然不完美,但访问还是进行了. The eventual report by outgoing UN human rights commissioner Michelle Bachelet concluded that 中国 had committed 严重侵犯人权这可能构成反人类罪.

这本应迫使国际社会采取行动. 而不是, 19 countries voted with 中国 to block a debate at the UN Human Rights Council (17 wanted the debate, 11票弃权). The upshot was that 中国 succeeded in driving the issue into a 外交终端.

Allowing an organisation designed to protect victims to be controlled by alleged perpetrators isn’t something New Zeal而且 should accept. The government should make it a diplomatic priority to become a member of the council, 而且 it should use every opportunity to speak out 而且 keep the issue in the global spotlight.

军备控制

在其他地方, New Zeal而且’s foreign policy can arguably be found wanting – most evidently, 也许, 在核武器管制领域.

提倡全面禁止 所有核武器, 正如首相9月份在联合国所做的那样, 可能会鼓舞人心,也有利于国内政治, 但这并不能让世界更安全.

冒着核爆炸的危险 这是自古巴导弹危机以来的最高水平, 一个更好的近期目标是改善监管, 而不是禁止, 核武器的问题. This would entail convincing nuclear states to take their weapons off “一触即发的紧张”.

其他目标应该是采用 所有核国家的政策(只有 中国 至今已作出这样的承诺), 而且 a push for regional arms control in the Indo-Pacific to rein in India, 巴基斯坦和中国.

大流行防备

Finally, there is the danger of vital law 而且 policy not just failing, but not even being born. This is the case with the World 健康 Organization’s so-called “流行的条约”, designed to better prevent, prepare for 而且 respond to the next global p而且emic.

新西兰就做了一些 令人钦佩的目标 in its submission in April, but these have been watered down or are missing from the first 工作草案 提议的协议.

This shouldn’t be accepted lightly given the lessons of the past two-而且-a-half years. 政府透明度, a precautionary approach 而且 the meaningful involvement of non-state actors will be essential.

类似的, improved oversight of the 59 laboratories spread across 23 countries that work with the most dangerous pathogens is critical. 目前,只有 四分之一的实验室 在安全方面得分很高. 提议的条约几乎没有要求这种 生物安全协议 而且 健全的监管体系 为了更好地保护今世后代.

同这里提到的其他紧迫和困难的问题一样, New Zeal而且’s future is directly connected to what happens elsewhere in the world. The challenge now is to keep adapting to this changing global order while being an effective voice for reason 而且 the rule of law.谈话

亚历山大·吉莱斯皮,法学教授, 十大体育外围平台排名

本文转载自 谈话 在创作共用许可下. 读了 原文.